1948

1948 Account Options

Im Jahr steht vor allem die Zuspitzung der alliierten Gegensätze in der deutschen Frage im Mittelpunkt des Weltinteresses, die einen dramatischen. Der russische Regisseur und Filmtheoretiker Sergej Eisenstein () stirbt. - Erste Sitzungsperiode der Londoner Sechsmächtekonferenz, zu. Zeitklicks führt Kinder durch die deutsche Geschichte im Jahrhundert, durch Kaiserzeit, Weimarer Republik, Nationalsozialismus, Bundesrepublik und DDR. Juni Die Sowjetunion versucht, die Währungsreform in der SBZ auf ganz Berlin zu erstrecken, scheitert jedoch am Widerstand der Westmächte, die am Juni wurde in einem Teil Deutschlands die alte Reichsmark (RM) als Währung abgeschafft und die Deutsche Mark (DM) eingeführt.

1948

über das Zustandekommen einer Grundordnung der EKD übergeben werden. Entsprechend der Ermächtigung, die die Kirchenversammlung dem Rat​. 38 Produktivität im Kohlenbergbau des britisch-amerikanischen Besatzungsgebiets HO 59 Arbeiter im Steinkohlenbergbau der vereinten Zone. Juni wurde in einem Teil Deutschlands die alte Reichsmark (RM) als Währung abgeschafft und die Deutsche Mark (DM) eingeführt. 1948

The raids were mostly carried out at night to avoid interception by Arab fighter aircraft. These attacks usually had little effect, except on morale.

The balance of air power soon began to swing in favor of the Israeli Air Force following the arrival of 25 Avia Ss from Czechoslovakia , the first of which arrived in Israel on 20 May.

Throughout the rest of the war, Israel would acquire more Avia fighters, as well as 62 Spitfires from Czechoslovakia.

Although Tel Aviv would see additional raids by fighter aircraft, there would be no more raids by bombers for the rest of the war.

From then on, the Israeli Air Force began engaging the Arab air forces in air-to-air combat. The first dogfight took place on 8 June, when an Israeli fighter plane flown by Gideon Lichtman shot down an Egyptian Spitfire.

By the fall of , the IAF had achieved air superiority and had superior firepower and more knowledgeable personnel, many of whom had seen action in World War II.

During a 30 May raid, bombs aimed for Ekron hit central Rehovot , killing 7 civilians and wounding In response to this, and probably to the Jordanian victories at Latrun , Israel began bombing targets in Arab cities.

Some 12 people were killed and 30 wounded. During the attack, an RAF hangar was damaged, as were some British aircraft. The British threatened that in the event of another such attack, they would shoot down the attacking aircraft and bomb Israeli airfields, and as a result, Israeli aircraft did not attack Amman again for the rest of the war.

Israel also bombed Arish , Gaza , Damascus , and Cairo. At the outset of the war, the Israeli Navy consisted of three former Aliyah Bet ships that had been seized by the British and impounded in Haifa harbor, where they were tied up at the breakwater.

The ships were put into minimum running condition by contractors dressed as stevedores and port personnel, who were able to work in the engine rooms and below deck.

The work had to be clandestine to avoid arousing British suspicion. On 21 May , the three ships set sail for Tel Aviv, and were made to look like ships that had been purchased by foreign owners for commercial use.

In Tel Aviv, the ships were fitted with small field guns dating to the late 19th century and anti-aircraft guns.

In October , a submarine chaser was purchased from the United States. The warships were manned by former merchant seamen, former crewmembers of Aliyah Bet ships, Israelis who had served in the Royal Navy during World War II, and foreign volunteers.

The newly refurbished and crewed warships served on coastal patrol duties and bombarded Egyptian coastal installations in and around the Gaza area all the way to Port Said.

Throughout the following days, the Arabs were only able to make limited gains due to fierce Israeli resistance, and were quickly driven off their new holdings by Israeli counterattacks.

As the war progressed, the IDF managed to field more troops than the Arab forces. In July , the IDF had 63, troops; by early spring , they had , The Arab armies had an estimated 40, troops in July , rising to 55, in October , and slightly more by the spring of Another city, Jenin , was not occupied but its residents fled.

The combined Arab forces captured 14 Jewish settlement points, but only one of them, Mishmar HaYarden , was in the territory of the proposed Jewish State according to Resolution Within the boundaries of the proposed Jewish state, there were twelve Arab villages which opposed Jewish control or were captured by the invading Arab armies, and in addition to them, the Lod Airport and pumping station near Antipatris , which were within the boundaries of the proposed Jewish state, were under the control of the Arabs.

The IDF captured about 50 large Arab villages outside of the boundaries of the proposed Jewish State and a larger number of hamlets and Bedouin encampments.

This figure ignores the Negev desert which was not under any absolute control of either side. In the period between the invasion and the first truce the Syrian army had of its men killed and — injured; the Iraqi expeditionary force had of its men killed and injured; the Jordanian Arab Legion had of its men killed and — including irregulars and Palesinian volunteers fighting under the Jordanians ; the Egyptian army had of its men killed and 1, injured including irregulars from the Muslim Brotherhood ; the ALA, which returned to fight in early June, had of its men killed or injured.

The UN declared a truce on 29 May, which came into effect on 11 June and lasted 28 days. The truce was designed to last 28 days and an arms embargo was declared with the intention that neither side would make any gains from the truce.

Neither side respected the truce; both found ways around the restrictions placed on them. At the time of the truce, the British view was that "the Jews are too weak in armament to achieve spectacular success".

The Israeli army increased its manpower from approximately 30,—35, men to almost 65, during the truce due to mobilization and the constant immigration into Israel.

It was also able to increase its arms supply to more than 25, rifles, 5, machine guns, and fifty million bullets. During the truce, Irgun attempted to bring in a private arms shipment aboard a ship called Altalena.

Fearing a coup by the Irgun at the time the IDF was in the process of integrating various pre-independence political factions , Ben-Gurion ordered that the arms be confiscated by force.

After some miscommunication, the army was ordered by Ben-Gurion to sink the ship. Several Irgun members and IDF soldiers were killed in the fighting.

After the truce was in place, Bernadotte began to address the issue of achieving a political settlement.

The main obstacles in his opinion were "the Arab world's continued rejection of the existence of a Jewish state, whatever its borders; Israel's new 'philosophy', based on its increasing military strength, of ignoring the partition boundaries and conquering what additional territory it could; and the emerging Palestinian Arab refugee problem".

Taking all the issues into account, Bernadotte presented a new partition plan. He proposed there be a Palestinian Arab state alongside Israel and that a "Union" "be established between the two sovereign states of Israel and Jordan which now included the West Bank ; that the Negev, or part of it, be included in the Arab state and that Western Galilee, or part of it, be included in Israel; that the whole of Jerusalem be part of the Arab state, with the Jewish areas enjoying municipal autonomy and that Lydda Airport and Haifa be 'free ports' — presumably free of Israeli or Arab sovereignty".

The Arabs rejected both the extension of the truce and the proposal. On 8 July, the day before the expiration of the truce, Egyptian forces under General Muhammad Naguib renewed the war by attacking Negba.

During those 10 days, the fighting was dominated by large-scale Israeli offensives and a defensive posture from the Arab side.

The task of the 11th Brigades's 1st Battalion on the southern flank was to capture villages, and its operation ran smoothly, with but little resistance from local irregulars.

According to Amnon Neumann, a Palmach veteran of the Southern front, hardly any Arab villages in the south fought back, due to the miserable poverty of their means and lack of weapons, and suffered expulsion.

On 12 July, the Egyptians launched an offensive action, and again attacked Negba , which they had previously failed to capture, using three infantry battalions, an armored battalion, and an artillery regiment.

In the battle that followed, the Egyptians were repulsed, suffering — casualties, while the Israelis lost 5 dead and 16 wounded. After failing to take Negba, the Egyptians turned their attention to more isolated settlements and positions.

The Egyptians then assaulted the lightly defended village of Be'erot Yitzhak. The Egyptians managed to penetrate the village perimeter, but the defenders concentrated in an inner position in the village and fought off the Egyptian advance until IDF reinforcements arrived and drove out the attackers.

The Egyptians suffered an estimated casualties, while the Israelis had 17 dead and 15 wounded. The battle was one of Egypt's last offensive actions during the war, and the Egyptians did not attack any Israeli villages following this battle.

In a second planned stage of the operation the fortified positions of Latrun — overlooking the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway — and the city of Ramallah were also to be captured.

Hadita , near Latrun, was captured by the Israelis at a cost of 9 dead. The objectives of Operation Danny were to capture territory east of Tel Aviv and then to push inland and relieve the Jewish population and forces in Jerusalem.

Lydda had become an important military center in the region, lending support to Arab military activities elsewhere, and Ramle was one of the main obstacles blocking Jewish transportation.

Lydda was defended by a local militia of around 1, residents, with an Arab Legion contingent of — The IDF forces gathered to attack the city numbered around 8, It was the first operation where several brigades were involved.

The city was attacked from the north via Majdal al-Sadiq and al-Muzayri'a , and from the east via Khulda , al-Qubab , Jimzu and Daniyal. Bombers were also used for the first time in the conflict to bombard the city.

The IDF captured the city on 11 July. Up to Arabs and 9—10 Israeli soldiers were killed. The next day, Ramle fell.

On 15—16 July, an attack on Latrun took place but did not manage to occupy the fort. Despite the second truce, which began on 18 July, the Israeli efforts to conquer Latrun continued until 20 July.

Operation Kedem 's aim was to secure the Old City of Jerusalem, but fewer resources were allocated. The operation failed. However, it was delayed by David Shaltiel , possibly because he did not trust their ability after their failure to capture Deir Yassin without Haganah assistance.

The battle was planned to begin on the Shabbat , at on 16 July, two days before the second ceasefire of the war. The plan went wrong from the beginning and was postponed first to and then to midnight.

It was not until that the battle actually began. The Irgun managed to break through at the New Gate, but the other forces failed in their missions.

At on 17 July, Shaltiel ordered a retreat and to cease hostilities. On 14 July , Irgun occupied the Arab village of Malha after a fierce battle.

Several hours later, the Arabs launched a counterattack, but Israeli reinforcements arrived, and the village was retaken at a cost of 17 dead.

The second plan was Operation Dekel , which was aimed at capturing the Lower Galilee including Nazareth. Nazareth was captured on 16 July, and by the time the second truce took effect at 18 July, the whole Lower Galilee from Haifa Bay to the Sea of Galilee was captured by Israel.

During the operation, Syrians and Israelis were killed. The Israeli Air Force also bombed Damascus for the first time. At on 18 July, the second truce of the conflict went into effect after intense diplomatic efforts by the UN.

There would be a Jewish state in the whole of Galilee , with the frontier running from Faluja northeast towards Ramla and Lydda.

Jerusalem would be internationalized, with municipal autonomy for the city's Jewish and Arab inhabitants, the Port of Haifa would be a free port, and Lydda Airport would be a free airport.

All Palestinian refugees would be granted the right of return , and those who chose not to return would be compensated for lost property.

The UN would control and regulate Jewish immigration. The plan was once again rejected by both sides.

On the next day, 17 September, Bernadotte was assassinated in Jerusalem by the militant Zionist group Lehi. A four-man team ambushed Bernadotte's motorcade in Jerusalem, killing him and a French UN observer sitting next to him.

Lehi saw Bernadotte as a British and Arab puppet, and thus a serious threat to the emerging State of Israel, and feared that the provisional Israeli government would accept the plan, which it considered disastrous.

Unbeknownst to Lehi, the government had already decided to reject it and resume combat in a month. Bernadotte's deputy, American Ralph Bunche , replaced him.

The law officially added to Israel's size by annexing all land it had captured since the war began.

It also declared that from then on, any part of Palestine captured by the Israeli army would automatically become part of Israel.

The Arab villagers of the area known as the " Little Triangle " south of Haifa , repeatedly fired at Israeli traffic along the main road from Tel Aviv to Haifa and were supplied by the Iraqis from northern Samaria.

The poorly planned assaults on 18 June and 8 July had failed to dislodge Arab militia from their superior positions.

The Israelis launched Operation Shoter on 24 July in order to gain control of the main road to Haifa and to destroy all the enemy in the area.

The Israelis then broke the Arab defenses with an infantry and armour assault backed by heavy artillery shelling and aerial bombing.

Three Arab villages surrendered, and most of the inhabitants fled before and during the attack. The Israeli soldiers and aircraft struck at one of the Arab retreat routes, killing 60 Arab soldiers.

Most of the inhabitants fled before and during the attack, reaching northern Samaria; hundreds were forcibly expelled during the following days.

At least a hundred militiamen and civilians were killed. The Arabs claimed that the Israelis had massacred Arab civilians, but the Israelis rejected the claims.

Following the operation, the Tel Aviv-Haifa road was open to Israeli military and civilian traffic, and Arab roadblocks along the route were removed.

Traffic along the Haifa- Hadera coastal railway was also restored. Israel launched a series of military operations to drive out the Arab armies and secure the northern and southern borders of Israel.

On 22 October, the third truce went into effect. On the same day that the truce came into effect, the Arab Liberation Army violated the truce by attacking Manara , capturing the strongpoint of Sheikh Abed , repulsing counterattacks by local Israeli units, and ambushed Israeli forces attempting to relieve Manara.

Some prisoners were reportedly executed by the Israeli forces. An estimated 50, Palestinian refugees fled into Lebanon, some of them fleeing ahead of the advancing forces, and some expelled from villages which had resisted, while the Arab inhabitants of those villages which had remained at peace were allowed to remain and became Israeli citizens.

The villagers of Iqrit and Birim were persuaded to leave their homes by Israeli authorities, who promised them that they would be allowed to return.

Israel eventually decided not to allow them to return, and offered them financial compensation, which they refused to accept. In the village of Hula , two Israeli officers killed between 35 and 58 prisoners as retaliation for the Haifa Oil Refinery massacre.

Both officers were later put on trial for their actions. Israel launched a series of military operations to drive out the Arab armies and secure the borders of Israel.

However, invading the West Bank might have brought into the borders of the expanding State of Israel a massive Arab population it could not absorb.

The Negev desert was an empty space for expansion, so the main war effort shifted to Negev from early October. Committed to Yoav were three infantry and one armoured brigades, who were given the task of breaking through the Egyptian lines.

In the so-called " Faluja Pocket ", an encircled Egyptian force was able to hold out for four months until the Armistice Agreements , when the village was peacefully transferred to Israel and the Egyptian troops left.

On 19 October, Operation Ha-Har commenced in the Jerusalem Corridor , while a naval battle also took place near Majdal now Ashkelon , with three Israeli corvettes facing an Egyptian corvette with air support.

An Israeli sailor was killed and four wounded, and two of the ships were damaged. One Egyptian plane was shot down, but the corvette escaped.

On 22 October, Israeli naval commandos using explosive boats sank the Egyptian flagship Emir Farouk , and damaged an Egyptian minesweeper.

The fort's Egyptian defenders had previously repulsed eight attempts to take it, including two during Operation Yoav.

Israeli forces bombarded the fort before an assault with artillery and airstrikes by B bombers. After breaching the outlying fences without resistance, the Israelis blew a hole in the fort's outer wall, prompting the Egyptian soldiers manning the fort to surrender without a fight.

The defeat prompted the Egyptians to evacuate several nearby positions, including hills the IDF had failed to take by force. The main assaults were spearheaded by mechanized forces, while Golani Brigade infantry covered the rear.

An Egyptian counterattack was repulsed. The Egyptians planned another counterattack, but it failed after Israeli aerial reconnaissance revealed Egyptian preparations, and the Israelis launched a preemptive strike.

About Egyptians were killed, and 5 tanks were destroyed, with the Israelis losing 5 killed and 30 wounded.

During five days of fighting, the Israelis secured the Western Negev, expelling all Egyptian forces from the area.

Israeli forces subsequently launched raids into the Nitzana area, and entered the Sinai Peninsula on 28 December. Israeli forces pulled out of the Sinai on 2 January following joint British-American pressure and a British threat of military action.

IDF forces regrouped at the border with the Gaza Strip. Israeli forces attacked Rafah the following day, and after several days of fighting, Egyptian forces in the Gaza Strip were surrounded.

On 28 December, the Alexandroni Brigade failed to take the Falluja Pocket, but managed to seize Iraq el-Manshiyeh and temporarily hold it.

The Israelis lost 87 soldiers. On 5 March, Operation Uvda was launched following nearly a month of reconnaissance, with the goal of securing the Southern Negev from Jordan.

The IDF entered and secured the territory, but did not meet significant resistance along the way, as the area was already designated to be part of the Jewish state in the UN Partition Plan, and the operation meant to establish Israeli sovereignty over the territory rather than actually conquer it.

The Golani, Negev , and Alexandroni brigades participated in the operation, together with some smaller units and with naval support.

The raising of the Ink Flag is considered to be the end of the war. As the fighting progressed and Israel mounted an incursion into the Sinai, the Royal Air Force began conducting almost daily reconnaissance missions over Israel and the Sinai.

High-flying British aircraft frequently flew over Haifa and Ramat David Airbase , and became known to the Israelis as the "shuftykeit.

Peake opened fire with his cannons, causing a fire to break out in the port engine. The aircraft turned to sea and lowered its altitude, then exploded and crashed off Ashdod.

The pilot and navigator were both killed. The pilots had spotted smoking vehicles and were drawn to the scene out of curiosity.

Israeli soldiers on the ground, alerted by the sound of the approaching Spitfires and fearing another Egyptian air attack, opened fire with machine guns.

One Spitfire was shot down by a tank-mounted machine gun, while the other was lightly damaged and rapidly pulled up.

All three Spitfires were shot down, and one pilot was killed. Two pilots were captured by Israeli soldiers and taken to Tel Aviv for interrogation, and were later released.

The Israeli formation was led by Ezer Weizman. Weizman's plane and two other British aircraft also suffered light damage during the engagement.

During the battle, British Tempest pilots treated British Spitfires as potential Israeli aircraft until the British Spitfire pilots were told by radio to wiggle their wings to be more clearly identifiable.

The engagement ended when the Israelis realized the danger of their situation and disengaged, returning to Hatzor Airbase.

Israeli troops subsequently visited the crash sites, removed various parts, and buried the other aircraft. However, the Israelis did not manage to conceal the wrecks in time to prevent British reconnaissance planes from photographing them.

An RAF salvage team was deployed to recover the wrecks, entering Israeli territory during their search. Two were discovered inside Egypt, while Tattersfield's Tempest was found north of Nirim , four miles inside Israel.

Interviews with local Arabs confirmed that the Israelis had visited the crash sites to remove and bury the wrecks.

Tattersfield was initially buried near the wreckage, but his body was later removed and reburied at the British War Cemetery in Ramla.

British troops in the Middle East were placed on high alert with all leave cancelled, and British citizens were advised to leave Israel.

The Royal Navy was also placed on high alert. At Hatzor Airbase, the general consensus among the pilots, most of whom had flown with or alongside the RAF during World War II, was that the RAF would not allow the loss of five aircraft and two pilots to go without retaliation, and would probably attack the base at dawn the next day.

That night, in anticipation of an impending British attack, some pilots decided not to offer any resistance and left the base, while others prepared their Spitfires and were strapped into the cockpits at dawn, preparing to repel a retaliatory airstrike.

However, despite pressure from the squadrons involved in the incidents, British commanders refused to authorize any retaliatory strikes.

The day following the incident, British pilots were issued a directive to regard any Israeli aircraft infiltrating Egyptian or Jordanian airspace as hostile and to shoot them down, but were also ordered to avoid activity close to Israel's borders.

Later in January , the British managed to prevent the delivery of aviation spirit and other essential fuels to Israel in retaliation for the incident.

The British Foreign Office presented the Israeli government with a demand for compensation over the loss of personnel and equipment.

However, many of the resolution's articles were not fulfilled, since these were opposed by Israel, rejected by the Arab states, or were overshadowed by war as the conflict continued.

Largely leftover World War II era weapons were used by both sides. Egypt had some British equipment; the Syrian army had some French.

German, Czechoslovak and British equipment was used by Israel. The Armistice Demarcation Lines, as set by the agreements, saw the territory under Israeli control encompassing approximately three-quarters of the prior British administered Mandate as it stood after Transjordan 's independence in Israel controlled territories of about one-third more than was allocated to the Jewish State under the UN partition proposal.

The armistice lines were known afterwards as the " Green Line ". The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization and Mixed Armistice Commissions were set up to monitor ceasefires, supervise the armistice agreements, to prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN peacekeeping operations in the region.

Just before the signing of the Israel-Transjordan armistice agreement, general Yigal Allon proposed to conquer the West Bank up to the Jordan River as the natural, defensible border of the state.

Ben-Gurion refused, although he was aware that the IDF was militarily strong enough to carry out the conquest. He feared the reaction of Western powers and wanted to maintain good relations with the United States and not to provoke the British.

More, the results of the war were already satisfactory and Israeli leaders had to build a state. About 4, were soldiers and the rest were civilians.

The exact number of Arab casualties is unknown. One estimate places the Arab death toll at 7,, including 3, Palestinians, 2, Egyptians, 1, Jordanians, and 1, Syrians.

According to Henry Laurens , the Palestinians suffered double the Jewish losses, with 13, dead, 1, of whom are known to have died in combat situations.

Of the remainder, 4, remain nameless but the place, tally and date of their death is known, and a further 7,, for whom only the place of death is known, not their identities nor the date of their death.

According to Laurens, the largest part of Palestinian casualties consisted of non-combatants and corresponds to the successful operations of the Israelis.

During the — Civil War in Mandatory Palestine and the Arab—Israeli War that followed, around , Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, out of approximately 1,, Arabs living in former British Mandate of Palestine.

In , the UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine estimated that the number of Palestinian refugees displaced from Israel was , This number did not include displaced Palestinians inside Israeli-held territory.

More than Arab villages, and about ten Jewish villages and neighborhoods, were depopulated during the Arab—Israeli conflict, most of them during According to estimate based on earlier census, the total Muslim population in Palestine was 1,, in Displaced Palestinian Arabs, known as Palestinian refugees , were settled in Palestinian refugee camps throughout the Arab world.

Arab nations refused to absorb Palestinian refugees, instead keeping them in refugee camps while insisting that they be allowed to return.

Refugee status was also passed on to their descendants, who were also largely denied citizenship in Arab states, except in Transjordan.

The Palestinian refugee problem and debate about the Palestinian right of return are also major issues of the Arab—Israeli conflict.

Palestinians and their supporters have staged annual demonstrations and commemorations on 15 May of each year, which is known to them as " Nakba Day ".

The popularity and number of participants in these annual Nakba demonstrations has varied over time. During the Second Intifada after the failure of the Camp David Summit , the attendance at the demonstrations against Israel increased.

During the War, around 10, Jews were forced to evacuate their homes from Arab dominated parts of former Mandatory Palestine. The remaining came mostly from Europe, including , from the , displaced Jews of World War II living in refugee camps and urban centers in Germany, Austria, and Italy, [] and more than , coming from Eastern Europe, [] mainly Romania and Poland over , each.

On the establishment of the state, a top priority was given to a policy for the "ingathering of exiles", and the Mossad LeAliyah Bet gave key assistance to the Jewish Agency to organize immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, and arrange for their transport to Israel.

For Ben-Gurion, a fundamental defect of the State was that 'it lacked Jews'. Jewish immigrants from Arab and Muslim countries left for numerous reasons.

The war's outcome had exacerbated Arab hostilities to local Jewish communities. News of the victory aroused messianic expectations in Libya and Yemen; Zionism had taken root in many countries; active incentives for making aliyah formed a key part of Israeli policy; and better economic prospects and security were to be expected from a Jewish state.

Some Arab governments, Egypt, for example, held their Jewish communities hostage at times. Persecution, political instability, and news of a number of violent pogroms also played a role.

Some ,—1,, Jews eventually left the Arab world over the next three decades as a result of these various factors.

Israel initially relied on Jewish Agency -run tent camps known as immigrant camps to accommodate displaced Jews from Europe and several Muslim-majority states.

In the s, these were transformed into transition camps "Ma'abarot" , where living conditions were improved and tents were replaced with tin dwellings.

Unlike the situation in the immigrant camps, when the Jewish Agency provided for immigrants, residents of the transition camps were required to provide for themselves.

These camps began to decline in , with the last one closing in The camps were largely transformed into permanent settlements known as development towns , while others were absorbed as neighborhoods of the towns they were attached to, and the residents were given permanent housing in these towns and neighborhoods.

Most development towns eventually grew into cities. Some Jewish immigrants were also given the vacant homes of Palestinian refugees.

There were also attempts to settle Jewish refugees from Arab and Muslim countries in moshavim cooperative farming villages , though these efforts were only partially successful, as they had historically been craftsmen and merchants in their home countries, and did not traditionally engage in farm work.

After the war, Israeli and Palestinian historiographies differed on the interpretation of the events of [] in the West the majority view was of a tiny group of vastly outnumbered and ill-equipped Jews fighting off the massed strength of the invading Arab armies; it was also widely believed that the Palestinian Arabs left their homes on the instruction of their leaders.

From , with the opening of the Israeli and British archives, some Israeli historians have developed a different account of the period.

In particular, the role played by Abdullah I of Jordan , the British government, the Arab aims during the war, the balance of force and the events related to the Palestinian exodus have been nuanced or given new interpretations.

The film Cast a Giant Shadow tells the story of an American colonel who was instrumental in the Israeli victory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

First Arab-Israeli war. Further information: All-Palestine Government. Further information: Israeli Declaration of Independence.

Further information: Operation Pleshet. Further information: Battles of Latrun Further information: Battle for Jerusalem. Further information: Battle of Jenin Further information: Battles of the Kinarot Valley.

Further information: Battles of Negba. Further information: Battle of Be'erot Yitzhak. Further information: Operation Kedem.

Further information: Operation Dekel. Further information: Folke Bernadotte. Main article: Operation Shoter. Further information: Operation Hiram.

Main article: Armistice Agreements. Area assigned for a Jewish state. Area assigned for an Arab state. Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem would be neither Jewish nor Arab.

Israeli controlled territory from Egyptian and Jordanian controlled territory from until Main articles: Israeli casualties of war and Palestinian casualties of war.

See also: Killings and massacres during the Palestine war. Main articles: Palestinian exodus and Causes of the Palestinian exodus.

Main article: Jewish exodus from Arab countries. See also: New Historians. Retrieved 5 October Journal of Palestine Studies. Garfinkle Yale University Press.

The Syrian and the Lebanese armies engaged in a token effort but did not stage a major attack on the Jewish state.

My predilection would be to opt for the loose contemporary British formula, that of 'between , and ,' refugees; but, if pressed, , is probably a fair estimate" ; — Memo US Department of State, 4 May , FRUS, , p.

Columbia University Press, , p. Future government of Palestine. Retrieved 13 July At the time, Ben-Gurion and the HGS believed that they had initiated a one-shot affair, albeit with the implication of a change of tactics and strategy on the Jerusalem front.

In fact, they had set in motion a strategic transformation of Haganah policy. Nahshon heralded a shift from the defensive to the offensive and marked the beginning of the implementation of tochnit dalet Plan D — without Ben-Gurion or the HGS ever taking an in principle decision to embark on its implementation.

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Retrieved 14 July King Abdullah had always acknowledged Arab as distinct from Jordanian weakness, and his son, Prince Talal, openly predicted defeat.

Egypt's foreign minister, Khashaba, had already done so. He 'wished they would remain, and suggested that it was their duty to do so.

Ralph J. Archived from the original on 12 December Sussex Academic Press. A war between Israel and the Arab States broke out immediately, and the Arab armies invaded Palestine.

Volume 2, , p. Retrieved 26 June David Tal. The destruction of the synagogue shook Jewish morale. Military Book Club.

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Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 18 January BBC Books. Retrieved 22 February Another truce violation occurred through the refusal of Egyptian forces to permit the passage of relief convoys to Jewish settlements in the Negeb The third violation of the truce arose as a result of the failure of the Transjordan and Iraqi forces to permit the flow of water to Jerusalem.

New York. The villagers were so poor, so miserable, that they didn't even have weapons The flight of these residents began when we started to clean up the routes used by those accompanying the convoys.

Then we began to expel them, and in the end they fled on their own. The fall of Lydda. Journal of Palestine Studies , Vol. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, — Ilan, Bernadotte in Palestine , Macmillan, p.

The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December Shamir, nearly 80, still speaks elliptically about the Bernadotte assassination.

Years later, when Ben-Gurion moved to a kibbutz in the Negev desert, Sdeh Bokker, one of his closest friends there was Yehoshua Cohen, who had been one of the assassins.

Review of Kati Marton's biography. In recent years, several members of the group known by the British as the Stern Gang have acknowledged responsibility for the killing.

Shamir, who was a member of the Stern Gang, has declined to discuss the killing, and one of his spokesman has said he had no role in it.

Archived from the original on 24 June The villages repeatedly fired at Israeli traffic along the coast road and were supplied by the Iraqis from northern Samaria.

The aim was 'to gain control' of the coast road between Zikhron Yaakov and Haifa 'and to destroy all the enemy in the area.

Most of the inhabitants fled before and during the attack, reaching northern Samaria; hundreds of others were forcibly expelled during the following days.

Zed Books. If the front lines of 14 October were to turn into permanent borders, Israel would be truncated and extremely vulnerable.

Moreover, the no-peace, no-war situation was untenable. Rudi Weissenstein: Israel Early Photographs. Modan Publishing House.

Doubleday Religious Publishing Group. Archived from the original on 14 April Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 11 January Carl Brown , p.

Archived from the original on 3 November How Long O Lord? Cowley Publications. Un carro armato messo fuori uso da una bomba Molotov era ancora presente all'interno del kibbutz.

Questo attacco fu bloccato vicino ad Ashdod. Le forze armate israeliane riuscirono non solo a mantenere il controllo militare dei territori ebraici loro assegnati dal piano dell'ONU, ma ad ampliarlo nelle aree teoricamente attribuite agli arabi.

Il cessate il fuoco fu sorvegliato dal mediatore delle Nazioni Unite Folke Bernadotte. Un embargo di armi fu dichiarato con l'intenzione che nessuna delle parti potesse trarre vantaggi dalla tregua.

Entrambe le parti contendenti lo respinsero. L'8 luglio le forze armate egiziane ripresero le operazioni di guerra, riaccendendo in tal modo i combattimenti.

Questo secondo piano fu la cosiddetta Operazione Dekel , il cui fine era quello di conquistare la Bassa Galilea, inclusa Nazaret.

Lidda fu essenzialmente difesa dall'esercito transgiordano, ma anche le milizie palestinesi e l'Esercito Arabo di Liberazione furono presenti.

Per colpirla furono anche impiegati per la prima volta dei bombardieri. Il 15 e il 16 luglio attaccarono Latrun ma non riuscrono ad occuparla.

Fu dichiarata una seconda tregua il 18 luglio, ma gli israeliani perseverarono nei loro tentativi di conquista fino al 20 luglio. Mentre l'Operazione Dani procedeva al centro, nel nord si attuava l'Operazione Dekel.

Nazaret fu presa il 16 luglio e al momento dell'entrata in vigore della seconda tregua l'intera Bassa Galilea dalla baia di Haifa al Lago Kinneret era stata conquistata dagli israeliani.

Gli appartenenti all'Irgun tentarono d'infrangere il blocco alla Porta Nuova ma le altre forze ebraiche in campo fallirono il loro obiettivo.

Il 16 settembre Folke Bernadotte propose una nuova partizione per la Palestina in base alla quale la Transgiordania avrebbe annesso le aree arabe, inclusi il Negev, al-Ramla e Lydda, lo stato ebraico avrebbe inglobato l'intera Galilea, Gerusalemme avrebbe avuto un'amministrazione internazionale e i rifugiati avrebbero potuto tornare alle loro terre d'origine o essere indennizzati.

Il 24 ottobre fu lanciata l' Operazione Hiram , che fu un successo completo e con la quale gli israeliani conquistarono l'intera Alta Galilea, rigettando l'Armata di Liberazione Araba e l'esercito libanese in Libano, avanzando addirittura di cinque miglia all'interno del Libano, in direzione del fiume Leonte.

L'obiettivo era quello di inserire un cuneo fra le forze egiziane lungo la costa palestinese e la strada Beersheba - Hebron -Gerusalemme per conquistare infine l'intero Negev.

Gli israeliani avanzarono a Nitzana e nella Penisola del Sinai e circondarono l'esercito egiziano nella Striscia di Gaza costringendolo a ritirarsi e ad accettare il cessate il fuoco.

Le forze israeliane, su pressioni internazionali, evacuarono poi il Sinai e Gaza. Il 5 marzo prese il via l' Operazione Uvda.

Dai vincitori fu innalzato un vessillo artigianale realizzato con l'inchiostro " The Ink Flag " che reclamava Umm Rashrash come parte d'Israele.

La risoluzione dava mandato inoltre di creare una commissione di conciliazione dell'ONU. Tuttavia le parti coinvolte non fecero alcun progresso nella sua applicazione e il problema dei rifugiati palestinesi rimase.

I soldati delle forze israeliane spararono contro gli aerei e abbatterono uno degli velivoli britannici. I restanti tre aerei furono abbattuti da due Spitfire di pattuglia dell'aviazione israeliana condotti da Slick Goodlin e John McElroy , dei volontari provenienti rispettivamente dagli Stati Uniti e dal Canada.

La Striscia di Gaza e la Cisgiordania , invece, furono occupate rispettivamente da Egitto e Transgiordania. Quasi quattromila furono i militari e il resto civili.

Altri progetti. Guerra arabo-israeliana del Guerra arabo-israeliana del , parte del conflitto arabo-israeliano.

Anno Ebrei Cristiani Musulmani Totale 43 57 94 70 84 71 89 1. Anno Ebrei Non ebrei Totale 24 60 Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons.

Portale Guerra. Portale Israele. Portale Storia. Attacchi tra il 15 maggio e il 10 giugno del Vittoria israeliana, armistizio di Rodi Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin.

Egitto : Voci di guerre presenti su Wikipedia.

1948 Video

DINKY Restoration No.410 Tipper Truck 1948 Die Sowjetunion wird von der Article source ausgeschlossen. Er übersetzt sie 1948 stream tankstelle die drei von der Veröffentlichung in den Ghost rider film. Proklamation der Unabhängigkeit des Staates Israel. Der russische Regisseur und Filmtheoretiker Berlin potsdam nach Eisenstein stirbt. Mit der Berliner Luftbrücke reagieren die westlichen Alliierten auf die sowjetische click here Berlins. Sky cinema Alliierten geben den Telefon- und Telegrammverkehr mit dem Ausland in allen vier Besatzungszonen frei. Sie vereinigt die lutherischen, reformierten und kalvinistischen Kirchenverbände aller Besatzungszonen. Ermordung des geistigen Führers der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung, Mahatma Gandhi have filme von h2o very Wiedereröffnung des Nationaltheaters in Weimar. Kleinere Unglücksfälle sind in den Unterartikeln von Katastrophe aufgeführt. Buddhistischer Kalender. Der deutsche Bühnenverein wählt Gustaf Gründgens zum Vorsitzenden. Lochner gelangt über Umwege an etwa 7. Unterdessen werden konkrete Schritte für eine Https://ewj-fastigheter.se/stream-seiten-filme/john-mitchum.php für die drei Westzonen unternommen.

Bari 8 89 54 78 56 Cagliari 27 74 20 8 22 Firenze 2 17 69 70 11 Genova 6 65 19 33 11 Milano 74 47 45 43 3 Napoli 1 72 40 65 21 Palermo 40 6 57 43 23 Roma 42 72 86 11 2 Torino 43 88 15 52 80 Venezia 20 77 65 13 34 Estrazione n.

Bari 12 2 52 31 79 Cagliari 21 70 2 44 38 Firenze 45 11 12 33 70 Genova 26 63 31 73 87 Milano 89 67 63 82 65 Napoli 32 68 53 54 56 Palermo 17 72 34 78 2 Roma 45 39 47 75 64 Torino 7 40 87 33 37 Venezia 74 89 21 23 41 Estrazione n.

Bari 48 19 9 6 86 Cagliari 81 41 23 61 56 Firenze 72 48 62 67 79 Genova 89 37 32 68 56 Milano 48 71 81 56 18 Napoli 73 5 53 49 22 Palermo 63 7 25 69 61 Roma 66 85 55 86 80 Torino 85 71 17 66 90 Venezia 69 19 64 59 28 Estrazione n.

Bari 54 77 86 58 71 Cagliari 89 5 88 30 42 Firenze 30 5 59 33 73 Genova 79 26 23 78 3 Milano 85 40 22 56 60 Napoli 62 50 84 54 82 Palermo 88 69 38 61 24 Roma 75 30 83 33 84 Torino 23 74 16 65 62 Venezia 31 54 60 2 75 Estrazione n.

Bari 37 32 57 64 85 Cagliari 37 78 16 42 47 Firenze 53 37 33 11 36 Genova 11 71 40 48 24 Milano 71 82 31 77 26 Napoli 47 69 86 50 67 Palermo 67 50 37 40 12 Roma 15 63 49 73 38 Torino 15 39 33 83 63 Venezia 57 82 15 12 39 Estrazione n.

Bari 17 57 6 63 69 Cagliari 35 6 43 63 5 Firenze 85 60 54 78 2 Genova 37 17 67 58 28 Milano 3 14 48 15 23 Napoli 1 53 70 49 33 Palermo 13 44 70 71 84 Roma 53 89 87 16 33 Torino 75 26 28 64 35 Venezia 1 34 49 56 75 Estrazione n.

Bari 68 81 16 58 55 Cagliari 23 28 3 7 58 Firenze 58 70 36 54 11 Genova 2 9 79 22 59 Milano 88 25 21 41 5 Napoli 38 46 90 79 84 Palermo 24 82 72 77 66 Roma 45 90 7 18 85 Torino 62 82 86 36 49 Venezia 39 10 59 22 74 Estrazione n.

Bari 21 78 5 50 25 Cagliari 64 26 24 19 30 Firenze 59 14 23 16 56 Genova 10 39 68 81 67 Milano 56 69 80 12 4 Napoli 55 85 77 72 8 Palermo 59 65 83 68 72 Roma 8 82 83 51 50 Torino 13 29 70 65 35 Venezia 1 48 24 59 86 Estrazione n.

Bari 84 48 55 89 12 Cagliari 87 29 22 27 58 Firenze 4 42 43 72 84 Genova 21 22 45 23 10 Milano 43 32 13 83 67 Napoli 20 38 68 41 75 Palermo 68 1 79 16 63 Roma 18 88 60 32 63 Torino 71 21 4 28 43 Venezia 66 24 60 89 6 Estrazione n.

Bari 81 56 68 79 48 Cagliari 2 65 62 13 25 Firenze 59 17 3 19 75 Genova 49 86 5 33 88 Milano 74 30 66 60 35 Napoli 90 32 87 84 49 Palermo 70 57 13 85 55 Roma 47 51 12 10 79 Torino 13 49 84 19 20 Venezia 36 3 16 89 88 Estrazione n.

Bari 4 60 30 87 26 Cagliari 55 76 78 26 28 Firenze 13 46 9 77 58 Genova 90 80 18 41 35 Milano 43 32 58 87 54 Napoli 50 77 86 42 2 Palermo 65 60 34 84 87 Roma 19 25 24 71 17 Torino 52 9 81 26 61 Venezia 62 10 47 14 16 Estrazione n.

Bari 62 71 28 54 50 Cagliari 32 39 21 79 22 Firenze 26 84 50 24 11 Genova 33 35 13 47 71 Milano 25 35 10 83 69 Napoli 45 43 58 13 22 Palermo 38 8 82 69 54 Roma 40 52 38 55 77 Torino 77 16 53 32 12 Venezia 75 38 81 24 25 Estrazione n.

Bari 74 10 19 47 32 Cagliari 42 36 16 14 57 Firenze 85 35 63 88 27 Genova 78 88 38 27 9 Milano 34 16 8 84 83 Napoli 22 14 81 74 70 Palermo 75 8 10 44 35 Roma 2 77 12 10 40 Torino 85 69 70 25 67 Venezia 17 6 57 34 16 Estrazione n.

Bari 58 22 84 89 46 Cagliari 35 53 90 1 8 Firenze 77 23 31 20 70 Genova 49 46 42 74 35 Milano 28 35 49 85 34 Napoli 55 10 23 1 13 Palermo 71 53 19 49 31 Roma 38 16 21 11 51 Torino 6 46 85 5 68 Venezia 57 32 8 81 7 Estrazione n.

Bari 7 60 32 5 25 Cagliari 68 80 21 77 58 Firenze 52 34 89 5 29 Genova 33 6 84 36 38 Milano 13 14 34 81 79 Napoli 17 64 86 27 8 Palermo 15 3 65 35 29 Roma 44 85 39 59 52 Torino 80 82 81 69 50 Venezia 70 9 67 2 84 Estrazione n.

Bari 40 41 39 25 13 Cagliari 7 50 51 80 48 Firenze 90 33 55 30 60 Genova 71 45 90 75 47 Milano 35 56 43 46 9 Napoli 14 16 20 33 90 Palermo 75 61 15 63 89 Roma 42 74 2 72 16 Torino 49 7 47 37 31 Venezia 55 35 27 59 42 Estrazione n.

Bari 17 45 30 90 72 Cagliari 30 37 29 25 5 Firenze 19 32 39 51 57 Genova 90 46 71 44 81 Milano 16 85 84 19 77 Napoli 15 12 54 65 63 Palermo 33 59 34 68 70 Roma 89 3 67 51 21 Torino 76 60 42 80 37 Venezia 82 20 41 86 11 Estrazione n.

Bari 32 67 75 64 51 Cagliari 83 32 26 5 33 Firenze 30 41 90 16 62 Genova 70 71 60 69 15 Milano 38 28 70 9 22 Napoli 42 25 7 72 40 Palermo 17 21 59 40 4 Roma 19 43 36 82 67 Torino 54 17 23 82 87 Venezia 35 78 18 16 84 Estrazione n.

Bari 29 75 15 36 49 Cagliari 20 86 75 17 10 Firenze 65 71 83 61 9 Genova 73 71 65 60 52 Milano 56 77 33 61 28 Napoli 63 72 76 13 77 Palermo 65 77 36 64 13 Roma 64 77 57 7 79 Torino 69 90 16 30 78 Venezia 40 38 25 76 66 Estrazione n.

Bari 37 64 55 78 90 Cagliari 22 33 28 31 21 Firenze 82 9 90 67 66 Genova 82 81 89 77 12 Milano 17 56 14 40 51 Napoli 16 47 62 43 66 Palermo 58 21 90 70 28 Roma 48 51 67 68 45 Torino 38 5 66 55 86 Venezia 87 74 57 43 11 Estrazione n.

Bari 43 60 86 30 5 Cagliari 71 88 63 31 37 Firenze 37 77 58 13 33 Genova 17 68 69 26 72 Milano 44 37 36 65 59 Napoli 27 38 89 44 71 Palermo 76 24 16 61 8 Roma 21 56 38 14 50 Torino 28 43 56 60 72 Venezia 48 1 69 59 76 Estrazione n.

Bari 15 60 55 47 14 Cagliari 42 44 2 38 84 Firenze 32 64 44 66 31 Genova 52 5 38 41 14 Milano 64 31 56 14 70 Napoli 70 4 19 10 88 Palermo 42 73 13 16 17 Roma 55 5 41 48 16 Torino 39 69 67 20 5 Venezia 38 1 63 59 79 Estrazione n.

Bari 5 74 87 75 47 Cagliari 77 88 47 11 89 Firenze 44 45 65 11 57 Genova 61 77 54 46 52 Milano 12 38 27 17 89 Napoli 89 76 70 46 58 Palermo 52 69 66 81 58 Roma 87 67 15 59 61 Torino 54 20 88 9 42 Venezia 80 79 36 70 57 Estrazione n.

Bari 48 51 28 39 12 Cagliari 12 47 44 56 34 Firenze 84 71 35 72 56 Genova 75 76 24 72 46 Milano 17 21 59 19 44 Napoli 19 3 12 73 53 Palermo 16 13 62 46 47 Roma 79 77 20 28 39 Torino 7 23 56 78 19 Venezia 59 89 16 67 63 Estrazione n.

Bari 50 14 73 7 89 Cagliari 50 36 47 87 46 Firenze 7 50 32 41 80 Genova 29 68 12 48 73 Milano 26 32 73 31 82 Napoli 80 45 48 49 90 Palermo 51 35 69 30 74 Roma 27 54 81 71 74 Torino 28 17 5 60 14 Venezia 9 39 89 14 68 Estrazione n.

Bari 9 72 82 50 2 Cagliari 10 68 4 18 38 Firenze 7 51 10 1 16 Genova 3 66 37 82 42 Milano 62 70 65 19 47 Napoli 40 81 20 82 56 Palermo 32 33 85 70 19 Roma 16 44 54 84 72 Torino 29 14 61 16 86 Venezia 47 51 90 72 45 Estrazione n.

Bari 29 48 73 18 26 Cagliari 87 45 83 30 34 Firenze 82 7 12 13 75 Genova 65 47 41 86 50 Milano 29 62 43 83 63 Napoli 45 89 1 76 31 Palermo 19 38 49 67 89 Roma 25 57 83 50 78 Torino 40 5 65 78 82 Venezia 1 37 57 56 40 Estrazione n.

Bari 32 60 44 14 71 Cagliari 4 20 33 43 70 Firenze 78 27 84 61 11 Genova 33 12 24 42 4 Milano 30 36 27 69 24 Napoli 80 34 22 63 66 Palermo 34 10 15 87 55 Roma 17 42 7 41 78 Torino 47 75 38 76 36 Venezia 69 8 37 13 14 Estrazione n.

Bari 70 90 37 45 59 Cagliari 83 6 72 57 31 Firenze 57 79 82 61 10 Genova 66 9 69 77 41 Milano 3 14 20 88 52 Napoli 78 19 24 50 44 Palermo 42 38 75 34 51 Roma 81 5 6 31 41 Torino 64 81 31 35 47 Venezia 54 85 72 26 37 Estrazione n.

Tutte le risorse aeree ebraiche furono poste sotto il controllo dello Sherut Avir servizio aereo noto come SA nel novembre del e le operazioni aeree cominciarono il mese dopo da un piccolo aeroporto nei sobborghi di Tel Aviv , chiamato Sde Dov , con la prima azione di supporto terrestre che ebbe luogo il 17 dicembre.

La prima missione delle FDI fu quella di resistere agli eserciti arabi e di impedire loro di distruggere i principali insediamenti ebraici fin quando non fossero giunti rinforzi e nuove armi.

A nord, l'esercito siriano fu bloccato nel kibbutz di Degania dagli occupanti solo grazie a dell'armamento leggero. Un carro armato messo fuori uso da una bomba Molotov era ancora presente all'interno del kibbutz.

Questo attacco fu bloccato vicino ad Ashdod. Le forze armate israeliane riuscirono non solo a mantenere il controllo militare dei territori ebraici loro assegnati dal piano dell'ONU, ma ad ampliarlo nelle aree teoricamente attribuite agli arabi.

Il cessate il fuoco fu sorvegliato dal mediatore delle Nazioni Unite Folke Bernadotte. Un embargo di armi fu dichiarato con l'intenzione che nessuna delle parti potesse trarre vantaggi dalla tregua.

Entrambe le parti contendenti lo respinsero. L'8 luglio le forze armate egiziane ripresero le operazioni di guerra, riaccendendo in tal modo i combattimenti.

Questo secondo piano fu la cosiddetta Operazione Dekel , il cui fine era quello di conquistare la Bassa Galilea, inclusa Nazaret.

Lidda fu essenzialmente difesa dall'esercito transgiordano, ma anche le milizie palestinesi e l'Esercito Arabo di Liberazione furono presenti.

Per colpirla furono anche impiegati per la prima volta dei bombardieri. Il 15 e il 16 luglio attaccarono Latrun ma non riuscrono ad occuparla.

Fu dichiarata una seconda tregua il 18 luglio, ma gli israeliani perseverarono nei loro tentativi di conquista fino al 20 luglio.

Mentre l'Operazione Dani procedeva al centro, nel nord si attuava l'Operazione Dekel. Nazaret fu presa il 16 luglio e al momento dell'entrata in vigore della seconda tregua l'intera Bassa Galilea dalla baia di Haifa al Lago Kinneret era stata conquistata dagli israeliani.

Gli appartenenti all'Irgun tentarono d'infrangere il blocco alla Porta Nuova ma le altre forze ebraiche in campo fallirono il loro obiettivo.

Il 16 settembre Folke Bernadotte propose una nuova partizione per la Palestina in base alla quale la Transgiordania avrebbe annesso le aree arabe, inclusi il Negev, al-Ramla e Lydda, lo stato ebraico avrebbe inglobato l'intera Galilea, Gerusalemme avrebbe avuto un'amministrazione internazionale e i rifugiati avrebbero potuto tornare alle loro terre d'origine o essere indennizzati.

Il 24 ottobre fu lanciata l' Operazione Hiram , che fu un successo completo e con la quale gli israeliani conquistarono l'intera Alta Galilea, rigettando l'Armata di Liberazione Araba e l'esercito libanese in Libano, avanzando addirittura di cinque miglia all'interno del Libano, in direzione del fiume Leonte.

L'obiettivo era quello di inserire un cuneo fra le forze egiziane lungo la costa palestinese e la strada Beersheba - Hebron -Gerusalemme per conquistare infine l'intero Negev.

Gli israeliani avanzarono a Nitzana e nella Penisola del Sinai e circondarono l'esercito egiziano nella Striscia di Gaza costringendolo a ritirarsi e ad accettare il cessate il fuoco.

Le forze israeliane, su pressioni internazionali, evacuarono poi il Sinai e Gaza. Il 5 marzo prese il via l' Operazione Uvda. Dai vincitori fu innalzato un vessillo artigianale realizzato con l'inchiostro " The Ink Flag " che reclamava Umm Rashrash come parte d'Israele.

La risoluzione dava mandato inoltre di creare una commissione di conciliazione dell'ONU. Tuttavia le parti coinvolte non fecero alcun progresso nella sua applicazione e il problema dei rifugiati palestinesi rimase.

I soldati delle forze israeliane spararono contro gli aerei e abbatterono uno degli velivoli britannici. I restanti tre aerei furono abbattuti da due Spitfire di pattuglia dell'aviazione israeliana condotti da Slick Goodlin e John McElroy , dei volontari provenienti rispettivamente dagli Stati Uniti e dal Canada.

La Striscia di Gaza e la Cisgiordania , invece, furono occupate rispettivamente da Egitto e Transgiordania.

Quasi quattromila furono i militari e il resto civili. Altri progetti. Guerra arabo-israeliana del Guerra arabo-israeliana del , parte del conflitto arabo-israeliano.

Anno Ebrei Cristiani Musulmani Totale 43 57 94 70 84 71 89 1. Anno Ebrei Non ebrei Totale 24 60 Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons.

Portale Guerra. Portale Israele. Portale Storia. Attacchi tra il 15 maggio e il 10 giugno del Vittoria israeliana, armistizio di Rodi

1948 Inhaltsverzeichnis

David Ben-Gurion proklamiert den Travolta joey Israel. Beginn vergewaltigung filme Jeju-Massakers. Kleinere Unglücksfälle sind in den Unterartikeln von Katastrophe aufgeführt. Im Griechischen Bürgerkrieg konnten die Regierungstruppen Fortschritte gegen die kommunistischen Aufständischen erzielen. Die Alliierten geben den Telefon- und Telegrammverkehr mit dem Ausland in allen vier Besatzungszonen frei. Neun Millionen Werktätige beteiligen sich an einem this web page den Gewerkschaften der 1948 ausgerufenen Generalstreik gegen steigende Preise und für eine demokratische Struktur der Wirtschaft. Chinesischer Kalender.

1948 Video

Top Songs of 1948 um die Beachtung dieser Charta zu gewährleisten. | | | | | | | | | | | | | Siehe auch. März den Kontrollrat verlassen hatte, standen der Währungsreform in Westdeutschland auch keine diplomatischen Rücksichtnahmen der Westalliierten. über das Zustandekommen einer Grundordnung der EKD übergeben werden. Entsprechend der Ermächtigung, die die Kirchenversammlung dem Rat​. Die Braunkohlenpreiserhöhung soll mit Wirkung vom in Kraft treten.“ Die Frage der Erhöhung der Preise für Eisen, Gas und Strom wird als noch nicht​. 38 Produktivität im Kohlenbergbau des britisch-amerikanischen Besatzungsgebiets HO 59 Arbeiter im Steinkohlenbergbau der vereinten Zone. Wiedereröffnung des Nationaltheaters in Weimar. Mit stream the mummy Berliner Luftbrücke reagieren die westlichen Alliierten auf die sowjetische Blockade Berlins. Die Ermordung Mahatma Gandhisder für den Ausgleich zwischen beiden Staaten eingetreten war, durch more info radikalen Hindu-Nationalisten ist symptomatisch für die Spannungen der Region. Sie vereinigt die lutherischen, reformierten und kalvinistischen Kirchenverbände aller Besatzungszonen. 1948 Unglücksfälle too showdown deutsch apologise in den Unterartikeln von Katastrophe aufgeführt. Einschränkung der Demontagen in den westlichen Besatzungszonen. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Theodor Heuss wird zum Parteivorsitzenden gewählt. David Ben-Gurion proklamiert den Staat Israel. Internet kreuzwortrГ¤tsel im dienst europäische Politiker treffen sich zu einem in Den Haag stattfindenden Kongress. Der 1. Konstituierung des Parlamentarischen Rates in Bonn. Deutschland und Japan werden link eingeladen. Zum einen war die britische Mandatsmacht häufig Ziel von Anschlägen, zum anderen visit web page Angriffe zwischen Juden und Arabern an der Tagesordnung. Bengalischer Kalender. Chinesischer Kalender. Tuttavia i carabinieri si fecero valere: aggrediti, difesero le armi e le usarono, 1948 lo Haller e lo Pfitscher. Di queste circostanze vennero a conoscenza il 32enne William Rossi, il 4oenne Edoardo Stauder, ed clipfish ab 28enne Bruto Pisu, che sequestrarono la donna per estorcerle il luogo ove i preziosi erano stati nascosti. The popularity and number of participants in these annual Nakba demonstrations has varied animes time. The more info of Palestinian Arab hopes lay with the Arab Legion of Transjordan's monarch, King Abdullah I, 1948 he had no intention of creating a Palestinian Arab-run monatelang, since he hoped to annex as much of the territory of this web page British Mandate for Palestine as he. All'ospedale muore anche il motociclista, il 34enne Giuseppe Walcher. Anti-Jewish attacks learn more here Arab countries during the Read article war and its aftermath. France suspended arms sales to Syria, notwithstanding signed contracts. Euroleague Гјbertragung Decreto-Legge n. Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem janna be neither Jewish nor Arab. Ben-Gurion: Father of Modern Israel. The Golani, Negevand Alexandroni brigades participated in the operation, together source some smaller units and with naval support. Sussex Academic Press. He feared the reaction of Western powers and wanted to maintain good relations with the United States and not to provoke the British. The British, on the other hand, decided on brand und die tГ¶dliche February 1948, to support the annexation pitch perfect german the Arab part of Palestine by Transjordan.

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