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On June 27, , Smith and his brother Hyrum were murdered by a mob in Carthage, Illinois , [44] while being held on charges of treason.

These groups have no affiliation with the LDS Church. For two years after Smith's death, conflicts escalated between Mormons and other Illinois residents.

Smith had predicted that the church would go to the West and be established in the tops of the Rocky Mountains. Young incorporated the LDS Church as a legal entity, and initially governed both the church and the state as a theocratic leader.

He also publicized the practice of plural marriage , [53] a form of polygamy. By , tensions had again escalated between Mormons and other Americans, largely as a result of accusations involving polygamy and the theocratic rule of the Utah Territory by Young.

At Young's death in , he was followed by other church presidents, who resisted efforts by the United States Congress to outlaw Mormon polygamous marriages.

United States , decreed that "religious duty" to engage in plural marriage was not a valid defense to prosecutions for violating state laws against polygamy.

Conflict between Mormons and the U. Soon thereafter, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a manifesto that officially suspended the practice.

Relations with the United States markedly improved after , such that Utah was admitted as a U. Relations further improved after , when church president Joseph F.

Smith again disavowed polygamy before the United States Congress and issued a " Second Manifesto ", calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease, as they were already against church doctrine since Woodruff issued the Manifesto.

Eventually, the church adopted a policy of excommunicating its members found practicing polygamy and today actively distances itself from " fundamentalist " groups still practicing polygamy.

During the 20th century, the church grew substantially and became an international organization, due in part to the spread of missionaries around the globe.

Slightly under half of church membership is within the United States. The church has become a strong and public champion of the nuclear family and at times played a prominent role in political matters, including opposition to MX Peacekeeper missile bases in Utah and Nevada , [65] the Equal Rights Amendment , [66] legalized gambling, [67] same-sex marriage , [68] and physician-assisted death.

A number of official changes have taken place to the organization during the modern era. One significant change was the ordination of men of black African descent to the priesthood in , which reversed a policy originally instituted by Brigham Young in For example, since the early s, the church has instituted a Priesthood Correlation Program to centralize church operations and bring them under a hierarchy of priesthood leaders.

During the Great Depression , the church also began operating a church welfare system, and it has conducted numerous humanitarian efforts in cooperation with other religious organizations including Catholic Relief Services and Islamic Relief , as well as secular organizations such as the American Red Cross.

The most authoritative sources of theology are the faith's canon of four religious texts, called the " standard works ". The church believes that this Angel Moroni is at least partial fulfillment of Revelation in the Bible.

The church characterizes the Book of Mormon as "the most correct of any book on earth and the keystone of [the] religion".

The Bible, also part of the church's canon, is believed to be "the word of God as far as it is translated correctly".

Sometimes, however, parts of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible corrections and restorations of assertedly damaged or lost passages are considered authoritative.

Some excerpts of Smith's translation have been included in the Pearl of Great Price, which also includes further translations by Smith and church historical items.

Other historical items and revelations are found in the Doctrine and Covenants. Another source of authoritative doctrine is the pronouncements of the current Apostles and members of the First Presidency.

The church teaches that the First Presidency the church's president and his counselors and the Quorum of Twelve Apostles are prophets [74] and that their teachings are generally given under inspiration from God through the Holy Spirit.

Members of the church acknowledge sustain them regularly as prophets, seers, and revelators —this is done publicly twice a year at the church's worldwide general conference.

For example, the Mormon cosmology and plan of salvation include the doctrines of a pre-mortal life , three degrees of heaven , and exaltation.

According to these doctrines, every human spirit is a literal child of a Heavenly Father , and each has the potential to continue to learn, grow, and progress in the eternities, eventually achieving eternal life which Latter-day Saints view as distinct from immortality , which is to become one with God in the same way that Jesus Christ is one with the Father, thus allowing the children of God to become divine beings or "gods" themselves.

This latter ordinance, known as a sealing ceremony, reflects a singular LDS view with respect to families. According to LDS Church theology, men and women may be "sealed" to one another so that their marital bond continues into the eternities.

The church teaches that all will have the opportunity to hear and accept or reject the gospel of Jesus Christ and the blessings that come to those who faithfully adhere to it, in this life or the next.

The LDS faithful observe a health code called the Word of Wisdom , in which they abstain from the consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and tobacco.

Latter-day Saints follow a moral code called the law of chastity , which prohibits adultery , homosexual behavior, and sexual relations outside of marriage.

LDS faithful donate a ten-percent tithe on their annual income, for the operations of the church, including construction of temples, meetinghouses, and other buildings, and other church uses.

They donate at least the cost of the two skipped meals as a fast offering , which the church uses to assist the poor and needy and expand its humanitarian efforts.

All LDS young men are expected to serve a two-year, full-time proselytizing mission. Prospective male missionaries must be at least 18 years old and no older than 25, not yet married, have completed secondary school, and meet certain criteria for physical fitness and spiritual worthiness.

Missionary service is not compulsory, nor is it required for young men to retain their church membership.

Unmarried women 19 years and older may also serve as missionaries, generally for a term of 18 months. However, the LDS Church emphasizes that women are not under the same expectation to serve as male members are, and may serve solely as a personal decision.

There is no maximum age for missionary service for women. Other men and women who desire to serve a mission, but may not be able to perform full-time service in another state or country due to health issues, may serve in a service mission.

Many opportunities are available. These include a belief in the Bible subject to an acknowledgement that it is imperfect , [96] the divinity of Jesus, and his atonement and resurrection.

LDS theology also includes belief in the doctrine of salvation through Jesus alone, restorationism , [97] millennialism , continuationism , penal substitution , [98] and a form of apostolic succession.

The practices of baptism by immersion and the eucharist referred to as the sacrament are also held in common. However, the Catholic Church considers doctrinal differences between the two groups to be so great that it will not accept a prior LDS baptism as evidence of Christian initiation, as it will baptism by other Christian groups, such as the Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches.

Nevertheless, the LDS Church differs from the many other churches within contemporary Christianity, and many people do not accept the church as part of Christianity.

From the perspective of Christians who agree with creeds, the most significant area of departure is the rejection by the LDS Church of certain parts of ecumenical creeds such as the Nicene Creed, which defines the predominant view of the Christian God as a Trinity of three separate persons in " one essence ".

LDS Church theology includes the belief in a " Godhead " composed of God the Father, his Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost as three separate Persons who share a unity of purpose or will; however, they are viewed as three distinct Beings making one Godhead.

Other significant differences relate to the church's acceptance of additional scripture, doctrine, and practices beyond what is found in the Catholic, Protestant, or Eastern Orthodox versions of the Bible.

The LDS Church shares a common heritage with a number of smaller faith groups that are collectively called the Latter Day Saint movement.

They also accept the Book of Mormon, and most, but not all, accept at least some version of the Doctrine and Covenants.

However, they tend to disagree to varying degrees with the LDS Church concerning doctrine and church leadership. The main branches of the Latter Day Saint movement resulted from the crisis of succession upon the death of Joseph Smith.

Other branches may be considered later offshoots of the LDS Church branch, mainly due to disagreements about plural marriage.

The church teaches that it is a continuation of the Church of Christ established in by Joseph Smith. This original church underwent several name changes during the s, being called the Church of Jesus Christ, the Church of God, [] and then in , the name was officially changed to the Church of the Latter Day Saints.

The term Mormon Church is in common use, [] but the church began discouraging its use in the late 20th century. Tax-exempt corporations of the LDS Church include the Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , [] a corporation sole which was organized in under the laws of the state of Utah to acquire, hold, and dispose of real property ; the Corporation of the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , [] which was established in in Utah to receive and manage money and church donations; and Intellectual Reserve, Inc.

Church congregations are organized geographically. Members are generally expected to attend the congregation with their assigned geographical area; however, some geographical areas also provide separate congregations for young single adults between the ages of 18 and 30 , single adults aged 31 to 45, [] or for speakers of alternate languages.

For Sunday services, the church is grouped into either larger to people congregations known as wards , or smaller congregations known as branches.

Although the building may sometimes be referred to as a chapel, the room used as a chapel for religious services is only one component of the standard meetinghouse.

The church maintains a virtual tour online of a typical example and also an online meetinghouse locator, which can be used to find the locations and meeting times of its congregations all over the world.

Regional church organizations, encompassing multiple congregations, include stakes , missions , districts , areas , and regions.

The church's definition of "membership" includes all persons who were ever baptized, or whose parents were members while the person was under the age of eight called "members of record" LDS Church , pp.

The church continues to seek recognition in regions where it has had little or no influence.

On August 30, , church leaders announced that they were making significant progress on "regularized operations for the Church in China".

The LDS Church is organized in a hierarchical priesthood structure administered by men. Latter-day Saints believe that Jesus leads the church through revelation and has chosen a single man, called "the Prophet" or President of the Church, as his spokesman on the earth.

While there have been exceptions in the past, he and two counselors are normally ordained apostles and form the First Presidency , the presiding body of the church; twelve other apostles form the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.

Monson on January 2, , senior apostle Russell M. Nelson was named president on January They exercise both ecclesiastical and administrative leadership over the church and direct the efforts of regional leaders down to the local level.

General authorities and mission presidents work full-time and typically receive stipends from church funds or investments.

Twice each year in April and October , general authorities address the worldwide church through general conference , which includes five two-hour sessions over the course of two days.

General conference sessions are translated into as many as 80 languages and are broadcast from the 21,seat Conference Center in Salt Lake City.

At the local level, the church leadership are drawn from the laity and work on a part-time volunteer basis without stipend.

An exception to that rule is for LDS missionaries, who work at the local level and are paid basic living expenses from a fund that receives contributions from their families or home congregations.

However, prospective missionaries are encouraged to contribute the cost of their missions to this fund themselves when possible.

Members volunteer general custodial work for local church facilities. All males who are living the standards of the church are generally considered for the priesthood and are ordained to the priesthood as early as age Ordination occurs by a ceremony where hands are laid on the head of the one ordained.

The priesthood is divided into three Aaronic priesthood quorums for young men 11 and up, and a Melchizedek priesthood quorum for men 18 and up.

Under the leadership of the priesthood hierarchy are five organizations that fill various roles in the church: Relief Society a women's organization , [] the Young Men and Young Women organizations for adolescents ages 12 to 18 , Primary an organization for children up to age 12 , and Sunday School which provides a variety of Sunday classes for adolescents and adults.

Women serve as presidents and counselors in the presidencies of the Relief Society, Young Women, and Primary, while men serve as presidents and counselors of the Young Men and Sunday School.

Many of these organizations and programs are coordinated by the Priesthood Correlation Program , which is designed to provide a systematic approach to maintain worldwide consistency, orthodoxy, and control of the church's ordinances, doctrines, organizations, meetings, materials, and other programs and activities.

The church also operates Institutes of Religion near the campuses of many colleges and universities. For high-school aged youth, the church operates a four-year Seminary program , which provides religious classes for students to supplement their secular education.

The church also sponsors a low-interest educational loan program known as the Perpetual Education Fund , which provides educational opportunities to students from developing nations.

The church's welfare system, initiated during the Great Depression , provides aid to the poor. It is financed by fast offerings : monthly donations beyond the normal 10 percent tithe, which represents the cost of forgoing two meals on monthly Fast Sundays.

Money from the program is used to operate Bishop's storehouses , which package and store food at low cost. Distribution of funds and food is administered by local bishops.

The church also distributes money through its LDS Philanthropies division to disaster victims worldwide.

Other church programs and departments include Family Services , which provides assistance with adoption , marital and family counseling , psychotherapy , and addiction counseling ; the LDS Church History Department, which collects church history and records; and the Family History Department, which administers the church's large family history efforts, including the world's largest family history library and organization FamilySearch.

Although the church has not released church-wide financial statements since , in , Time magazine called it one of the world's wealthiest churches per capita.

The church receives significant funds from tithes and fast offerings. According to the church, tithing and fast offering money is devoted to ecclesiastical purposes and not used in for-profit ventures.

The church has also invested in for-profit business and real estate ventures such as Bonneville International , Deseret Book Company , City Creek Center , and cattle ranches in Utah, Florida, Nebraska, Canada and other locations.

According to the whistleblower, applicable law requires the funds be used for religious, educational or other charitable purposes for the fund to maintain its tax-exempt status.

Due to the differences in lifestyle promoted by church doctrine and history, members of the church have developed a distinct culture.

It is primarily concentrated in the Intermountain West. Many of the church's more distinctive practices include adhering to the Word of Wisdom, a health law or code which outlines guidelines for maintaining good health.

Among these guidelines are instructions prohibiting the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, tea, and improper drug use.

They sometimes come into conflict with local retail businesses that serve non-members. Meetings and outreach programs are held regularly and have become part of Latter-day Saint culture.

The culture has created substantial business opportunities for independent LDS media. Such communities include cinema , fiction , websites, and graphical art such as photography and paintings.

The church owns a chain of bookstores called Deseret Book , which provide a channel through which publications are sold.

The church also produces several pageants annually depicting various events of the primitive and modern-day church. Its Easter pageant Jesus the Christ has been identified as the "largest annual outdoor Easter pageant in the world".

The Twilight vampire novels of Mormon Stephenie Meyer sell tens of millions of copies, Mormon convert Glenn Beck inspires daily devotion and outrage with his radio show, and HBO generated lots of attention with the Big Love finale.

The proclamation states that " marriage between a man and a woman is ordained of God and that the family is central to the Creator's plan for the eternal destiny of His children.

The adult women members of the church's Relief Society in a congregation meet at least quarterly for additional instruction and service.

The meetings may consist of a service project, conferences, or of various classes being offered. After interviewing and polling thousands of youth across America, evangelical statistician Christian Smith wrote in , "in general comparisons among major U.

Additional meetings are also frequently held at the meetinghouse. Church officers may conduct leadership meetings or host training sessions and classes.

The ward or branch community may schedule social activities at the meetinghouse, including dances, dinners, holiday parties and musical presentations.

The church's Young Men and Young Women organizations meet at the meetinghouse once a week, where the youth participate in activities.

Church members may also reserve meetinghouses at no cost for weddings, receptions, and funerals. Also beginning with the new initiative in , during the summer, the LDS Church provides week-long experiences, known as For the Strength of Youth Conferences.

The program is held Monday through Saturday during the summer months for youth ages 14 to During this week, youth spend the night in college campus dorms and the day in various classes taught by adult religious educators, as well as participating in other various activities such as scripture study and dances.

The LDS Church takes no partisan role in politics, stating that it will not "endorse, promote or oppose political parties, candidates or platforms; allow its church buildings, membership lists or other resources to be used for partisan political purposes; attempt to direct its members as to which candidate or party they should give their votes to While the church takes an apolitical approach to candidates, it encourages its members to play an active role as responsible citizens in their communities, including becoming informed about issues and voting in elections.

It actively works to counter anti-Mormonism that may come up during political campaigns. S Republican Presidential Primary, Michael Otterson , the LDS Church's managing director for public affairs stated, "We now have two Latter-day Saints running, and the potential for misunderstanding or missteps is therefore twice what it was before.

The official church stance on staying out of politics does not include if there are instances of what church leaders deem to be moral issues.

It has previously opposed same-sex marriage in California Prop 8 , supported a gay rights bill in Salt Lake City which bans discrimination against homosexual persons in housing and employment, [] [] opposed gambling, opposed storage of nuclear waste in Utah, [] [] and supported the Utah Compact.

It also opposed a ballot initiative legalizing medicinal marijuana in Utah, [] but supports a possible alternative to it. Jack N.

Gerard , a general authority who serves as executive director of the church's Public Affairs Department stated, "The Church does not object to the medicinal use of marijuana, if doctor-prescribed, in dosage form, through a licensed pharmacy.

Jon Huntsman, Jr. Eight are Republicans and two are Democrats. The LDS Church provides worldwide humanitarian service.

Welfare efforts, originally initiated during the Great Depression , provide aid for the poor, financed by donations from church members.

The church also distributes money and aid to disaster victims worldwide. In , the church partnered with Catholic Relief Services to provide aid to Niger, [] and it has also partnered with Islamic Relief to help victims of flooding in Pakistan.

In the s, the greatest criticism was for Smith's handling of a banking failure in Kirtland, Ohio. In the s, criticism of the church centered on its theocratic aspirations in Nauvoo, Illinois.

Criticism of the practice of plural marriage and other doctrines taught by Smith were published in the Nauvoo Expositor.

Opposition led to a series of events culminating in murder of Smith and his brother while jailed in As the church began openly practicing plural marriage under Brigham Young during the second half of the 19th century, the church became the target of nationwide criticism for that practice, as well as for the church's theocratic aspirations in the Utah Territory.

Beginning in , the church also came under significant media criticism after the Mountain Meadows massacre in southern Utah.

Academic critics have questioned the legitimacy of Smith as a prophet as well as the historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon and the Book of Abraham.

Criticism has expanded to include claims of historical revisionism, homophobia, racism, and sexist policies. Evangelical Christians continue to argue that Smith was either fraudulent or delusional.

Most of the apologetic work focuses on providing and discussing evidence supporting the claims of Smith and the Book of Mormon.

Scholars and authors such as Hugh Nibley , Daniel C. Talmage are well-known apologists within the church. During the civil rights era of the s and s, the LDS Church was criticized for its policy of excluding black men of African descent from the priesthood, a policy that the church changed in The church's support in of California's Proposition 8 sparked heated debate and protest by gay-rights organizations and others.

In addition, it said that these children should reject the practice of homosexual marriage or cohabitation. The church said that this baptism policy is designed to protect children.

Church leaders described these changes not as a change in doctrine but as one on policy. Jewish groups, including the American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, criticized the LDS Church in after discovering that vicarious baptisms for the dead for victims of the Holocaust had been performed by members of the church.

Due to doctrinal differences, the LDS Church is generally considered to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity by Catholic , Orthodox , and Protestant churches, which express differences with one another but consider each other's churches to be Christian.

The church's lack of transparency about its finances has drawn criticism from commentators who consider the church's practices too secretive.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 June For its overarching religious tradition, see Mormonism.

Nontrinitarian Christian restorationist church. Official logo since featuring the Christus statue.

Nontrinitarian Mormonism. Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Nativity Crucifixion Resurrection. Bible Foundations.

History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Related topics. See also: Mormonism and Christianity. See also: List of sects in the Latter Day Saint movement.

Countries and territories with at least one LDS temple. Countries and territories with no official LDS presence. Christianity portal Latter Day Saints portal.

Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Heber J. January Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Retrieved April 3, April 6, Archived from the original on March 25, Retrieved April 11, Archived from the original on April 5, Retrieved April 4, March 31, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved September 13, Archived from the original on June 28, May , "Testimony" , Ensign , Perhaps the puzzle some feel can be explained by the reality that each of us has two different channels to God.

We have a channel of governance through our prophet and other leaders. This channel, which has to do with doctrine, ordinances, and commandments, results in obedience.

We also have a channel of personal testimony, which is direct to God. This has to do with His existence, our relationship to Him, and the truth of His restored gospel.

This channel results in knowledge. Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved December 30, Archived PDF from the original on June 29, Retrieved July 18, Bushman , p.

Lloyd, R. In , Smith designated Kirtland as one of the " stakes " of Zion, referring to the tent—stakes metaphor of Isaiah Doctrine and Covenants In , Missouri issued a formal apology for this unconstitutional order Bushman , p.

Hear Him! Journal of Religion and Health. The suppression resulted in Smith being arrested, tried, and acquitted for "inciting a riot". On June 25, Joseph let himself be arrested and tried for the riot charges again, this time in Carthage, the county seat, where he was incarcerated without bail on a new charge of treason.

Bentley, Joseph I. He did. Who was it? It was Hyrum, but Hyrum fell a martyr before Joseph did. If Hyrum had lived he would have acted for Joseph.

As a result, Young, and any other senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve , would be ordained President of the Church as a matter of course upon the death of the former President, subject to unanimous agreement of the Quorum of the Twelve.

Uit bronnenkritiek blijkt dat Marcus het oudste evangelie is circa 70 na Chr. De schrijvers van Matteüs en Lucas hebben van dit evangelie gebruikgemaakt.

Daarnaast hebben zij nog ander gemeenschappelijk materiaal, met name uitspraken van Jezus. Dit waren hoogstwaarschijnlijk perikopen of een verzameling daarvan die bekendstaat als de hypothetische bron Q.

Tenslotte bevatten Matteüs en Lucas eigen uniek materiaal dat waarschijnlijk ook gebaseerd is op oudere overleveringen zie verder het synoptische vraagstuk : Sondergut , respectievelijk M genoemd voor uniek materiaal in Matteüs en L idem in Lucas.

Johannes, dat meer het karakter van een theologisch geschrift heeft dan de andere drie, wordt rond gedateerd. De anonieme auteur noemt als bron een geschreven verslag van de "geliefde discipel".

Het werk Oude geschiedenis van de Joden ca. De meeste van deze teksten zijn verloren gegaan, maar uit de overgebleven fragmenten wordt duidelijk dat zij met veel zin voor mythologie, magie en fantasie de onbekende aspecten van Jezus' leven invullen vooral uit zijn kinderjaren.

Sommige ervan hebben grote invloed gehad op de volkse overleveringen. De os en de ezel in de stal komen uit het 5e-eeuwse Evangelie van pseudo-Matteus , door de schrijver zelf De geboorte van Maria en kindertijd van de Verlosser genoemd.

Dit laatste werd in bij het Egyptische dorp Nag-Hammadi ontdekt en is de vertaling van een 2e-eeuws Grieks origineel. Het bevat geen enkel verhaal over Jezus; biografische bijzonderheden zijn er dus niet in vinden.

In de rabbijnse bronnen voornamelijk in de Babylonische Talmoed komen enkele referenties naar Jezus voor, maar niet elke verwijzing is even duidelijk.

Volgens Peter Schafer stammen de oudste daarvan uit het einde van de derde of het begin van de vierde eeuw na Chr.

Plinius de Jongere schreef in na Chr. Tacitus beschreef in zijn Annales , geschreven rond , hoe Nero de schuld voor de brand van Rome in de schoenen van de christenen schoof en dat "de man aan wie deze naam ontleend is, Christus, Lucianus van Samosata leefde nog later in de tweede eeuw.

Hij gaf in De dood van Peregrinus een sarcastische beschrijving van christenen en noemde hun wetgever de man die in Palestina gekruisigd werd.

De Koran verschaft weinig informatie over Jezus, hoewel hij daarin voorkomt als profeet Isa. De Koran ca.

Historische bronnen hebben altijd een bepaalde standplaatsgebondenheid. Dit geldt ook voor de vroegste bronnen over Jezus, die hem vanuit een geloofsstandpunt belichten.

Bij mensen zoals Jezus houden historici bovendien rekening met een bepaalde mate aan legendevorming. Het onderzoek naar de historische Jezus brengt de overgeleverde herinneringen in kaart en legt beargumenteerde verbanden met de periode van het leven van Jezus.

Hierbij wordt vooral gezocht naar het oudste materiaal in de bronnen, dat met behulp van verschillende criteria benaderd kan worden.

Vanuit de vormkritiek zijn de criteria van authenticiteit ontwikkeld, waarvan de methodologische waarde echter ter discussie staat.

Gezaghebbende geleerden zijn sceptisch over de mogelijkheid om losse spreuken en verhalen voor authentiek te verklaren: zij menen dat het slechts haalbaar is de grote lijn die door verschillende herinneringen loopt, te herleiden tot de historische impact van Jezus.

Minder bekende criteria die weleens gebruikt worden zijn: sporen van Aramees in de bronnen, couleur locale , levendige verhaaltrant, tendenzen van de evoluerende synoptische traditie, en dat de reconstructie van Jezus een plausibele verklaring moet geven voor de kruisdood.

Sinds de Verlichting hebben mensen gepoogd Jezus op een rationeel-naturalistische wijze te benaderen.

Baruch Spinoza bijvoorbeeld schetste in zijn Tractatus theologico-politicus Jezus als morele leraar en verwierp diens wonderen als verzinsels voor het gewone volk.

Het onderzoek naar de historische Jezus bereikte een eerste hoogtepunt in de negentiende eeuw. Klassiek is Das Leben Jesu, kritisch bearbeitet , waarin David Strauss betoogde dat de rabbi Jezus van Nazareth was opgetuigd met behulp van mythen.

Zelf zag hij de historische Jezus als een apocalyptische prediker. In de negentiende eeuw, met uitlopers in de twintigste eeuw, verdedigde de Hollandse radicale school dat Jezus nooit bestaan heeft en dat de brieven van Paulus veel later gedateerd moesten worden.

Een vertegenwoordiger van deze school was Gustaaf Adolf van den Bergh van Eysinga. De eerste helft van de twintigste eeuw wordt gekenmerkt door het onderscheid tussen de historische Jezus en de verkondigde kerygmatische Christus Martin Kähler , Rudolf Bultmann.

Bultmann betoogde dat de historische Jezus onbelangrijk was voor het geloof, alleen dat hij bestaan had deed ertoe.

Ernst Käsemann zette in het onderzoek naar de historische Jezus tegenover zijn leermeester Bultmann in Duitsland weer op de kaart.

Sinds de laatste decennia van de twintigste eeuw lijkt het Angelsaksische onderzoek de prominente plaats van het Duitse onderzoek te hebben overgenomen met onder meer de invloedrijke studie Jesus and Judaism van E.

Mede door de nieuwe informatie over het jodendom in de tijd van Jezus de Dode Zee-rollen en nieuwe vroegchristelijke teksten de Nag Hammadigeschriften ontstonden er verschillende reconstructies van de historische Jezus.

Afhankelijk van de keuzes die de historicus hierbij maakt, is Jezus gereconstrueerd als rabbi, wijsheidsleraar, anti-Romeinse rebel, radicale godsdienstvernieuwer, messiaspretendent, Esseen , apocalyptische profeet, enzovoort.

Dit geeft duidelijk aan hoe moeilijk het is om een objectief beeld van Jezus te krijgen. Toch meent een groot deel van de geleerden dat Jezus een apocalyptische profeet was, die de nabijheid van het koninkrijk van God verkondigde.

Het bestaan van een historische Jezus wordt door vrijwel alle deskundigen geaccepteerd. Ten eerste zijn Paulus , Marcus en de weliswaar hypothetische bron Q van elkaar onafhankelijke getuigenissen over de historische mens Jezus binnen circa veertig jaar na zijn dood.

Ten tweede presenteren de bronnen die binnen een eeuw na Jezus' dood zijn geschreven, [19] hem als een figuur uit het recente verleden die past in de context van zijn tijd.

Jezus was een van de meest voorkomende Joodse namen in Palestina rond het begin van de jaartelling. De betekenis is JHWH is redding.

Volgens de Joodse conventies van toentertijd was hij wellicht oorspronkelijk bekend als Jesjoea ben Josef Jezus de zoon van Jozef.

In het Nederlands wordt ook vaak de Griekse verbastering messias gebruikt. Het woord gezalfde wordt in de joodse traditie gebruikt voor koningen, priesters en profeten.

Wel is waarschijnlijk dat sommige volgelingen al bij zijn leven dachten dat hij de messias was. De titel messias werd al snel tot een tweede naam voor Jezus en hij staat daarom onder christenen bekend als Jezus Christus of Christus Jezus.

Volgens veel moderne exegeten is er geen aanleiding aan te nemen dat Jezus ooit heeft beweerd Zoon van God te zijn.

Sanders heeft een lijst opgesteld van in het historisch-kritisch onderzoek nagenoeg algemeen aanvaarde gegevens over het levenskader van Jezus: [34] [13].

Over de eerste dertig jaar van Jezus' leven valt nauwelijks iets te zeggen. Ook de bepaling van zijn geboortejaar blijft speculatief. Traditioneel werd aangenomen dat Jezus geboren was in het jaar 1, gebaseerd op de berekeningen van Dionysius Exiguus rond Maar als de bewering in Matteüs 2 en Lucas klopt dat Herodes de Grote nog leefde toen Jezus werd geboren, moet de laatste uiterlijk 4 v.

Maar de enige zekerheid is dat Jezus is geboren tijdens het bewind van keizer Augustus. Het complete Romeinse Rijk zou ontworteld worden door een dergelijk decreet.

Er zijn ook geen aanwijzingen dat duizenden andere nakomelingen van David zich allemaal moesten en konden inschrijven in Bethlehem - een dorpje in Judea waarvan archeologisch bewijs van bewoning rond de tijd van Jezus ontbreekt.

Ook zou Augustus herinneringen aan een koningshuis dat al meer dan jaar van haar macht was beroofd, niet willen doen herleven, omdat de sociale spanningen die zouden ontstaan door de hoop op het herleven een Davidisch koningshuis , precies waren wat de Romeinen probeerden te vermijden.

Vanuit historisch-kritisch perspectief is de voorstelling van de geboorte van Jezus in Bethlehem daarom vrijwel zeker ontstaan om de voorspelling dat het koningshuis van David hernieuwd zou worden met een persoon uit Bethlehem-Efrata in de bergen van Judea [38] uit te laten komen.

De meest waarschijnlijke geboorteplaats van Jezus is daarom Nazareth. Ook Paulus was overtuigd van de Davidische afkomst van Jezus.

De talen van Romeins Palestina zijn een complex fenomeen, omdat dit gebied blootgesteld is geweest aan verschillende internationale talen.

Dit wordt bevestigd door Aramese citaten van Jezus in de Griekse manuscripten bijvoorbeeld Talita koem : Meisje ik zeg je, sta op!

Grieks was de lingua franca van het oostelijke Middellandse Zeegebied en in de westelijke grote steden van het Romeinse Rijk.

Latijn werd alleen in Afrika en ten westen van Rome gesproken, maar het Romeinse bestuur in het oosten hanteerde doorgaans het Grieks als bestuurstaal.

Niets wijst er op dat Jezus een hoge opleiding gehad heeft. De meeste mensen uit zijn tijd konden niet lezen of schrijven.

Als argument dat Jezus uit de Hebreeuwse Bijbel kon lezen, wordt naar voren gebracht dat in elk geval in de rabbijnse tijd volwassen Joodse mannen werden geacht die te kunnen lezen, en dat in de evangelieverhalen door Jezus verwezen wordt naar het lezen van de Schriften.

Johannes de Doper was een populaire profeet uit die tijd. Volgens het Lucas-evangelie was hij een neef van Jezus, maar de andere evangelisten vermelden dit niet.

Johannes de Doper doopte talrijke mensen in de Jordaan als teken van boete of inkeer met het oog op vergeving van zonden. Josephus verwierp de opvatting dat de doop zelf te maken had met vergeving van zonden.

Hij stelde dat de doop van Johannes te maken had met de rituele reiniging van het lichaam, nadat de ziel al gereinigd was door rechtvaardigheid.

Het is het moment waarop Jezus in de openbaarheid trad. Nadat Johannes de Doper gevangen was genomen, ging Jezus zijn boodschap prediken in de streek Galilea.

Het centrum van Jezus' prediking lijkt te hebben gelegen in een klein plaatsje in Galilea: Kafarnaüm. Hier was hij thuis [49] en riep hij de belangrijkste discipelen, twee broederparen, namelijk Petrus en Andreas en Jakobus en Johannes.

Petrus had een huis in Kafarnaüm, waar Jezus zijn schoonmoeder genas. In de synagoge genas hij een kreupele. Vrijwel nooit was hij in de heidense steden die de Herodianen hadden gebouwd, zoals Sepphoris , Caesarea of Tiberias.

Jezus predikte in synagogen, bij mensen thuis en in de open lucht. De totale tijd van Jezus' prediking heeft waarschijnlijk ongeveer drie jaar in beslag genomen.

De Bijbel spreekt van de omgang van Jezus met destijds in het algemeen geminachte mensen, zoals prostituees en tollenaars.

Een centrale rol in de prediking van Jezus was het nabije Koninkrijk van God , een profetische traditie die al in de dagen van Jezus enkele eeuwen oud was vergelijk Amos.

In zijn prediking betrok Jezus de joodse verwachting van Gods Koninkrijk op zichzelf. Uitgestotenen en armen waren blijkbaar een belangrijke of zelfs de belangrijkste groep die door Jezus werd aangesproken.

Jezus stond in zijn prediking niet alleen. Een groep van mensen reisde met hem mee op zijn voettochten door het land. Hierbij hadden volgens de Bijbel twaalf discipelen een speciale plaats.

De meesten van hen waren vissers uit Galilea. Zij ontvingen onderricht van Jezus. Jezus was een religieuze, in Galilea opgegroeide Jood.

Veel van zijn uitspraken doen vermoeden dat hij het grotendeels eens was met de milde Hillel , alleen op het punt van echtscheiding is hij net zo streng als Sjammai.

Jezus verkondigde zijn leer vaak in de vorm van een parabel of gelijkenis. Het verhaal sluit aan op concrete omstandigheden, maar Jezus gaf er vanuit zijn gezichtspunt en boodschap een andere wending aan en leerde de mensen daarmee de Joodse wetten goed na te leven.

Zoals het verhaal van de barmhartige Samaritaan. Veel parabels van Jezus worden echter uitgelegd alsof ze een allegorie zijn.

Jezus en de discipelen gingen ervan uit dat een ingrijpen door God aanstaande was en dit zou leiden tot Gods koninkrijk op aarde.

Uit de Dode Zee-rollen blijkt dat ook anderen een dergelijke verwachting hadden. Velen lijken de spanning tussen het komende koninkrijk van de hemel, dat nu al vorm krijgt, en dat anderzijds toch nog afwacht, niet begrepen te hebben.

Aan weinig andere historische personen worden zoveel wonderen toegeschreven als aan Jezus. Hij genas onder meer zieken en gehandicapten, [58] wierp duivelen uit , [59] wekte doden op [60] en had macht over de natuur.

Mozes en Elia en ook rond de tijd van Jezus in Palestina, [54] zoals Honi de Cirkeltekenaar [62] midden van de eerste eeuw v.

Ook waren er personen die wonderen beloofden en volgelingen kregen, zoals Theudas leefde kort na Jezus.

In de vroegste lagen van de traditie komt Jezus vaak voor als genezer en exorcist. Deze reputatie reflecteert waarschijnlijk het historische gegeven dat Jezus inderdaad als genezer en exorcist optrad.

Jezus' aankomst in Jeruzalem op een ezel wordt beschouwd als symbolisch, in de zin van een bewuste keuze om aan te sluiten op profetische uitspraken in de Hebreeuwse Bijbel.

In dit geval als vervulling van Zacharia , waar wordt gesproken over de aankomst van een koning: "Nederig komt hij aanrijden op een ezel".

Het is onmogelijk vast te stellen of Jezus de profetie kende en er bewust voor koos Jeruzalem binnen te rijden op een ezel of dat de christelijke traditie hem als zodanig afbeeldde.

Als er inderdaad een grote menigte hem onthaalde als koning, [70] is het moeilijk te verklaren dat Jezus nog een week in leven bleef.

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